Filipinos WW11 US Military Service

Historical Notes

Names A
Names B
Names C
Names D
Names E-F
Names G
Names H-K
Names L
Names M
Names N-O
Names P
Names Q-R
Names S
Names T
Names U-Z
Philippine Scouts (OLD)
Philippine Commonwealth Army
USAFFE Philippine Division
Recognized Guerrillas
Philippine Military Academy 1940
Hukbalahaps in WW2
(NEW) Philippine Scouts
Ethnic Minorities in WW2
Filipino Muslims in WW2
Filipino-Chinese in WW2
The Pinays in WW2
Medal of Honor
Distinguished Service Cross
Silver Star
Bronze Star Medal
Purple Heart
Prisoner of War Medal
Military Unit Award
Phil Defense Medal
Congressional Gold Medal for POWs
Memorials in the Philippines
Memorials in California
Memorials in Florida
Memorials in Hawaii
Memorials in Illinois
Memorials in Indiana
Memorials @ Ft. Riley Kansas
Memorials in Minnesota
Memorials in New Mexico
Memorials in Ohio
Memorials in Texas
Memorials in Washington State
Memorial in Israel
Filipino WW2 U.S. Veterans Fight 4 Equity
WW11 Merchant Mariners Fight 4 Equity
Library of Congress Oral History
J. Wertz: Writer Seeking 1941-1942 Filvets
Unpublished War Diaries
Published War Stories
War Diary of Ramon Alcaraz
Post War Court Cases
Historical Notes
Photo Correction: Death March
WW2 Veterans Advocacy
Guest Webpage: Civilian Internment Camps
Guest Webpage: Manuel L. Quezon
Guest Webpage: New Mexico Nat. Guards
Guest Webpage: Mexican Air Force in the Philippines
Guest Webpage: Japanese Memorials
Guest Webpage: Japanese Occupation
Guest Webpage: Japanese Holdouts

Clement G. Austria # born 11/23/1923 Tiaong Quezon; died 11/1986, a WW11 guerilla while a medical student @ U.S.T.; post-war: became a physician; father of U.S. Congressman Stephen Austria of Ohio, 7th District (Republican)

Bio for Cong. Stephen Clement Austria born 10/12/1958 Cincinnati Ohio; s/o Dr. Clement Austria & Jean Brockman; h/o Eileen F. Crotty (B.A. Political Sc Dayton University Dist Director for Cong Dave Hobson); f/o Brian, Kevin & Eric; education: B.A. Political Sc. Marquette University; was Ohio, 10th Dist State Senator (also Majority Whip) 2001-2008 & Ohio State House Rep (1998-2000); resident of Beavercreek Ohio


Friday, February 20, 2009

Remembering the Writer-
Heroes of World War II

By Alice Colet Villadolid

By early 1942, the grey-clad and heavy-booted minions of the militarist regime of Japan had marched into Manila, as they did into other cities of the Philippines. News of their brutal victories in China and British Malaya had preceded them, causing US Gen. Douglas MacArthur to declare Manila an Open City and withdraw his American and Philippine troops to Bataan and Corregidor.

From the raw brick barracks of Fort Santiago in Intramuros, which the Japanese troops now occupied, squads of military police or Kempeitai marched out and scoured the city. They promptly closed down the offices of English language newspapers and radio stations, and put under surveillance all other groups with any linkages to Western institutions.

The dreadful events that followed up to the end of World War II and the massacre in Manila in February 1945 were sadly recalled at a commemorative program in the afternoon of February 12 at the Lyceum of the Philippines, which jointly sponsored it with Memorare Foundation and the Friends of Intramuros Inc. Historian Benito Legarda Jr. headed the panel of resource persons.

At the beginning of 1942, Avenida Rizal was still Manila’s main avenue where some hotels and theaters were located. At the Cine Ideal owned by the Roces family, Rafael "Liling" Roces continued to hold office in the secluded administrative section behind the theater itself which was now closed. Aside from his duties at the family owned movie house, he had been one of the editors of The Manila Times, which the Kempeitai had also closed.

Educated and brought up in the Spanish mestizo tradition, Liling Roces could not accept a future as a stooge of militarist Japan, with no freedom to write freely and lead the cultured life. So he welcomed to his backroom office like-minded Filipinos who now collected information and sent them to the Usaffe (United States Armed Forces in the Far East).

Joining Roces from across the street, where the Manila Bulletin offices used to be, was Antonio Escoda Sr. Like Liling, he was well-educated and well-mannered, among the last of the glorious Filipino "ilustrados." City editor of the Bulletin before it was closed down by the Kempeitai, Escoda now allied himself with Gen. Vicente Lim of the Usaffe.

His wife, Josefa Llanes Escoda, was a talented essayist and public speaker, founder of the Girl Scouts of the Philippines. She was also under Kempeitai surveillance because she was known to have taken postgraduate studies in the United States, and because she led other women in bringing food and medicine to the Allied internees at the University of Santo Tomas Interment Camp. Although the Escodas had two young children—Maria Teresa and Antonio Jr.—they decided to risk working behind the Kempeitai to assist the Usaffe in bringing to an early end the Japanese occupation of the country.

But the Kempeitai was deadly efficient. In 1944, they arrested Liling Roces from his office at Cine Ideal and brought him to Fort Santiago. Soon after, the Kempeitai arrested Escoda and General Lim aboard a boat in Batangas bay where they had been broadcasting to MacArthur’s headquarters in Australia.

Tortured like the other Filipinos then jailed at the Fort, Roces, Escoda and General Lim hang on to life. There were infrequent visiting rights for immediate family members. Tony Escoda requested his wife Josefa to stop visiting him for fear she would be arrested next. Indeed, she was next; and she was brought to Fort Santiago, later transferred to the Kempeitai jail in the Far Eastern University compound.

Her daughter Maria Teresa or Bing told this reporter in the 1980s that a nun working with the prisoners had seen Josefa Escoda taken out from the FEU compound in a Kempeitai truck, along with other prisoners. But she did not know where they moved them, for Josefa and her companions were never seen again.

The youngest daughter of General Lim, Maria Lim Ayuyao, said in my interview with her in 2005 that they traced General Lim and Antonio Escoda to the Chinese General Hospital where their blood was drawn before they were brought to the North Cemetery where they were reportedly beheaded. The families never found the exact place where their bodies were buried.

In the book Looking for Liling by the multi-awarded Alfredo Roces, he tells of their family’s painful search for his brother’s remains. Like the Escodas and General Lim, Liling Roces had also been beheaded in 1944 by the ruthless Kempeitai. After years of investigation and interviews, they finally found his remains, also at the North Cemetery in La Loma.

At least there was no beheading for another talented writer, Manuel Colayco of Commonweal magazine, who was chief of the Allied Intelligence Bureau in Manila. In the afternoon of February 3, 1945, as he went to meet the First US Cavalry at Blumentritt junction in Santa Cruz to guide them to the Santo Tomas Internment Camp, he was able to telephone his wife, Clemencia Colayco, that the Allies had entered Manila.

Col. Haskett Conner of the First Cavalry invited him to ride in his command vehicle, a weapons carrier. Colayco skillfully guided them down Avenida Rizal, avoiding the Japanese guardpost on Tayuman by turning to Quiricada, then Felix Huertas, then Andalucia, Lerma and Espana. His colleague in the Intelligence Bureau, Diosdado Guytingco who survived the war, later recounted that as they faced the front gate of UST, he warned Colayco to take cover as Japanese sentries in the Main Building might open fire. A grenade was fired at them, killing Colayco and wounding Conner. Together with his widow Clemencia who taught for many more years in UST, Manuel Colayco is lovingly remembered by American internees and Filipino students of UST.

Every February, the History town of Intramuros commemorates these World War II heroes as well as the numerous priests and nuns, doctors and nurses and other ilustrados whose lives were wasted there. #

Credits to: Aluit, Alfonso. By Sword and Fire, Manila 1994.
Escoda, Ma. Teresa. PPI Memorial Lecture, December 7, 1991.
Legarda, Benito Jr. Occupation: The Later Years. Vibal House, Quezon City, 2007


Pearl Harbor Casualties


Feliciano Todias Bugarin, USN OC2c; died 12/7/1941 U.S.S. Utah; (Notes by M.E. Embry: a Feliciano Bugarin w/ US Army serial # 3551470; born 4/6/1893 Santo Domingo Ilocos Philippines; Cpl Co B 2nd Hawaii Inf 4/8/1917-2/6/1919; resident of Pahoa Hawaii, a sakada in Hawaii-same person or a namesake of the Pearl Harbor casualty?)


Benigno Caabay Civilian casualty


Marciano Lomibao born 1907 Philippines; died 12/7/1941 U.S.S. Arizona; USN Officer’s Steward 2class from Buenlag Binmaley Pangasinan


Francisco Tacderan born Philippines; died 12/13/1941 @ Ewa Plantation Hospital; buried Ocean View Cemetery @ 4120 Waialae Ave (near Kohala Mall) Civilian casualty; sakada @ Ewa plantation wounded in the head by a shrapnel from either an enemy or friendly fire @ the Ewa U.S. Marine Corps Station


Other casualties w/ Filipino name sounding: Gregorio Aguon; Manuel Dominic Badilla Louis Clarence Cabay Epifanio Miranda Casilan; Francisco Unpingoo Rivera (all U.S.S. Arizona); Zoilo Aquino (U.S.S. Nevada)


Post-WWII immigration files to be opened to public

By MARIA SUDEKUM FISHER, Associated Press Writer Maria Sudekum Fisher, Associated Press Writer – Mon Jun 15, 8:07 pm ET
KANSAS CITY, Mo. – Millions of files containing detailed information about U.S. immigrants — including their spouses' names, as well as personal photographs and letters — will soon become available to the public through a federal facility in suburban Kansas City.
Preservationists had been worried that the documents providing an important picture of immigration after 1944 would be lost because the federal government considered them temporary and could have destroyed them after 75 years.
But a deal signed this month between the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services and the National Archives and Records Administration preserves all 53 million files. About 21 million will be sent to the National Archives and made available in batches to genealogists, families and others.
"It's a big deal because basically at this point they could have just incinerated them all," said Jennie Lew, a spokeswoman for Save Our National Archives, a San Francisco-based group that worked to preserve the files. "And these give a fuller picture of those that were allowed to immigrate later in American history."
The U.S. has been "very good at preserving the records of the Puritans and western Europeans ... but you'd miss the whole history of those" who came to the U.S. later if the A-files weren't kept, she said.
Some files contain items such as Chinese wedding scrolls or the locations of family homes, said Jeanie Low, another SONA spokeswoman.
"We're not just talking about European immigrants. We're talking about Africans, war brides, southeast Asians, every political struggle you have had," she said. "All we have before these files was immigrants coming through Ellis Island
, and that is not representative of the U.S. anymore."
The first batch of about 135,000 files is expected to be available to the public this fall at National Archives' storage facility in Lee's Summit. People also can ask the archive to mail them copies of records.
Immigrants will continue to be able to get copies of their own files under the Freedom of Information Act.
The files will not be open to others, however, until 100 years after an immigrant's birth.
Lists of documents contained in A-files had been previously available to the public with a FOIA request. But the files themselves were not open for viewing or copying


Posted on Friday, September 25, 2009

Obama says 'no' to pensions for WW II Alaska guards

By Erika Bolsted | McClatchy Newspapers

WASHINGTON -- In a strongly worded message to Congress outlining its priorities for a military spending bill, the Obama administration today said it disapproved of including money for pensions for 26 elderly members of the World War II-era Alaska Territorial Guard.

The Guardsmen are among those assigned to protect Alaska from the Japanese during World War II.

The Army decided this year to no longer count service in the Guard in calculating the military's 20-year minimum for retirement pay, although it still counts for military benefits. As a result, their pensions were decreased in January.

An estimated 300 members are still living from the original 6,600-member unit formed in 1942 to protect Alaska, then a territory, from attack. The 26 men have enough other military service to reach the 20-year minimum for retirement pay but would lose it if the Territorial Guard service doesn't count.

A Senate military spending bill up for a vote in the Senate allows the former Guard members count their service as part of active military duty, and it reinstates the payments.

State lawmakers passed a bill earlier this year to fill the pay gap until Congress made a permanent fix, but the White House said Friday it didn't think it was "appropriate to establish a precedent of treating service performed by a state employee as active duty for purposes of the computation of retired pay."

Sen. Lisa Murkowski, who along with Sen. Mark Begich, D-Alaska, sponsored the fix, called the administration move "deeply disappointing, bordering on insensitive." The legislation honors 26 elderly Native people who are the few remaining survivors of a military unit that served the country with valor, Murkowski said.

"The administration's justification, which is that the legislation will set the precedent of treating service as a state employee as federal service, defies logic and history," she said in a statement. "Sixty-two years after the Territorial Guard was disbanded, the Obama administration minimizes the contribution of this gallant unit to America's success in World War II by calling its service 'state service.' "



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